• Thu. Sep 29th, 2022

    What is game theory?

    ByGoodBoy

    Sep 23, 2022
    4 thoughts on “What is game theory?”
    1. Chinese name: Game theory English Name: Game Theory
      Definition 1: A mathematical decision -making method to deal with the issue of competition and cooperation.
      Definition 2: Study mathematics methods to make decisions in the competition to fight for the maximum benefits.
      Definition 3: According to information analysis and ability judgment, the behavior interaction between multi -decision -making subjects and their mutual balance to maximize returns or effectiveness.
      Classic cases:
      The Zhizhu game
      Payoffs of Zhizhu (Pigs’payoffs) is about: there are two pigs in the pigpen, a big pig, a piglet. There is a pedal on one side of the pigpen. Every time the pedal is stepped on, a small amount of food will be dropped on the feeding port on the other side of the pigpen that is far from the pedal. If there is one pig to step on the pedal, the other pig will have the opportunity to eat the food that falls on the other side. When the piglet stepped on the pedal, the big pig would just eat all the food before the piglet ran to the food tank; if the big pig stepped on the pedal, there was still the opportunity to run before the piglets were eaten. Trust tanks, compete for the other half of the disabled. So, what strategies will the two pigs take?
      The answer is: The pig will choose the "ride" strategy, that is, comfortably, and wait for the grooves comfortably; the big pig is busy running between the pedals and the grooves. What is the reason? Because the piglets step on the pedal, they will have nothing to get, but they can eat food without stepping on the pedal. For the piglets, whether the big pig stepped on the pedal, it is always a good choice to not step on the pedal. On the other hand, the big pig already knew that the piglet would not step on the pedal. It was better to step on the pedal by himself than not to step on, so he had to do it for himself. The phenomenon of "piglet lying on the big pig" is caused by the game rules in the story. The core indicators of the rules are: the number of foods falling each time and the distance between the pedal and the feed port. If you change the core indicators, will the same scene in the pigpen also appear the same scene of "small pigs lying on the big pig"? Try it.
      changing scheme 1: Reduction scheme. Eating only half of the original weight. As a result, the pigs did not step on the pedal. When the piglets go, the big pig will eat the food; the big pig will step on, and the pig will also eat the food. Whoever stepping on the pedal means to contribute food to the other party, so no one will have the motivation to step the pedal. If the purpose is to let the pigs go to the pedal, the design of this game rules is obviously failed.

      changing scheme 2: Incrementing plan. Eating is the original weight. As a result, piglets and big pigs will go to the pedal. Whoever wants to eat, whoever wants to eat will go to the pedal. Anyway, the other party will not eat the food at a time. Pigs and big pigs are equivalent to living in a "communist" society with relatively rich material, so their awareness of competition will not be strong. For the designers of the game rules, the cost of this rule is quite high (provided with double -portal food); and because of the lack of competition, the effect of wanting to step on the pedal for pigs is not good.

      This Solution 3: Reduction plus displacement position. Eating only half of the original weight, but at the same time move the feeding mouth to the pedal. As a result, both pigs and big pigs were desperately grabbing the pedal. Waitors do not eat, and more work. Each harvest is just finished. This is the best solution for game designers. The cost is not high, but the harvest is the biggest.

      The original "Zhizhu Games" story gives the weak (Piggy) in the competition to enlighten the best strategy. But for society, because pigs failed to participate in the competition, the pig's social resources allocation was not the best state. In order to make resources the most effective configuration, the designers of the rules are unwilling to see someone on the stool. The government is so, as well as the company's boss. Whether it can completely eliminate the phenomenon of "ride a car" depends on whether the core indicators of the game rules are appropriate. For example, the company's incentive system design has a great reward, it is also holding a share, and an option. All the company staff has become a millionaire. The cost is high. The enthusiasm of employees is not necessarily very high. This is equivalent to the situation described in the "Zhizhu Game" incremental plan. However, if the reward is not strong, and there are people who see it (the "pig" without labor), the big pig that is very hard for a time will not be motivated ---- it's like the "Zhizhu game" reduction plan. Described. The best incentive mechanism design is like changing solutions three-the method of reduced volume and displacement. The rewards are not everyone has a share, but directly targeting individuals (such as business-proportioned business), which saves costs (for the company's company In terms of), the phenomenon of "ride" has been eliminated, which can achieve effective incentives. Many people have not read the story of "Zhizhu Games", but they are consciously using the pig's strategy. The stock market is waiting for the dealer to lift the retail households; waiting for the new products with profitability in the industrial market, and then make great imitation to make money; those who do not create benefits in the company, but share results, and so on. Therefore, for those who formulate game rules of various economic management, we must know the reason why the "Zhizhu Games" indicators have changed.

    2. Game Theory, also known as "countermeasures" and "game theory", is a branch of applied mathematics. It is currently in biology, economics, international relations, computer science, political science, military strategy, and many other disciplines. Both are widely used. The theory of game theory mainly studies the interaction between the incentive structure of the formula. It is a mathematical theory and method that studies the phenomenon of struggle or competitiveness. It is also an important discipline for operational studies. Game theory considers the individual prediction and practical behavior in the game, and study their optimization strategies. Biologists use game theory to understand and predict some results of evolution theory. See: Behavioral Ecology (ECOLOGY)
      game elements: (1) Decision maker: The first party to make decisions in the game, this party often adopts a directional directional priority based on its own feelings, experience, and surface status priority. action. (2) Fighting: The person who lags behind the game in the game, and the decision maker must make a basic negative decision, and his actions are lagging, default, and passive, but ultimately dominant. His strategy may depend on the strategy choice of the disadvantages of decision makers and occupy the characteristics of the space. Therefore, confrontation is the only way to take advantage, and it is the phased end of the leader. (3) Players: In a competition or game, every participant with decision -making power becomes a bureau. The game of only two people in the two bureaus is called "two -person game", and the game of more than two bureaus is called "multi -person game". (4) Strategy (): In a game, people in each game have a actual and feasible and complete action solution, that is, the plan is not a action plan at a certain stage, but a plan to guide the entire action. One action plan for a feasible plan from beginning to end is called a strategy of people in this bureau. If there is a limited strategy in a game in a game, it is called "limited game", otherwise it is called "unlimited game". (5) Payoffs: The results when the game ending is called gains and losses. The gains and losses of the people in each game at the end of the game are not only related to the strategy selected by the people in the bureau, but also related to a group of strategies set by people in the global people. Therefore, at the end of the game, the "gains and losses" of the people in each game are functions of a group of strategies set by people in the whole bureau, which are usually called PayOFF functions. (6) Order (order): The decisions of each game party are divided into one, and a game party must make more than once decision choices, and the order problems have occurred; other elements are different, and the game is different. (7) The game involves equilibrium: Balanced is the meaning of equilibrium. In economics, the equilibrium meaning means that the correlation is in the stable value. In the supply and demand relationship, a certain commodity market can buy the per capita of this product at this price, and the per capita people who want to sell can be sold. At this time, we will say that the supply and demand of the product has reached balanced. The so -called Nash balance, it is a stable game result

    3. Game Theory, also known as "countermeasures" and "game theory", is a branch of applied mathematics. It is currently in biology, economics, international relations, computer science, political science, military strategy, and many other disciplines. Both are widely used. The theory of game theory mainly studies the interaction between the incentive structure of the formula. It is a mathematical theory and method that studies the phenomenon of struggle or competitiveness. It is also an important discipline for operational studies. Game theory considers the individual prediction and practical behavior in the game, and study their optimization strategies. Biologists use game theory to understand and predict some results of evolution theory. See: Behavior Ecology (Ecology) For details, please refer to
      KE./view/18930

    4. You see that the buns in the entire street sell for 5 cents, and you can make 1 dime. So you also do buns and sell them. You plan to sell 4 cents and 8 cents, only 8 cents. This will definitely come to you to buy buns here, so you send it. However, you later discovered that the buns in other shops did not sell 4 cents and 8. This is called: Game theory
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